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There
are many types of breeding systems that are used today. There is pure breeding,
inbreeding/linebreeding, outcrossing, and cross-breeding. There are also
specific ways to classify animals based on age and sexual maturity. The names
are different depending on what type of animal it is. Breeding systems are important
because they go against negative traits and select the good ones.

            Pure- breeding means to breed a male and a female of the
same breed. The purpose of pure breeding is to provide the superior
genetics.  Inbreeding is when a male and
a female who are closely related produce an offspring. Outbreeding is when a
male and a female who are not closely genetically related produce an offspring.
Inbreeding is also referred to as linebreeding, inbreeding normally results in a
reduction in animal performance. Inbreeding has many bad effects such as poor
reproductive efficiency, high death rates, and low growth rates.

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            Outcrossing is when two animals of the same breed mate
but are not related to each other. This type of breeding is the most used in
commercial and seed stock producers. A higher level of heterozygosity is produced
with outcrossing. Crossbreeding is used to get the strong points of different
breeds, it’s easy to use and maintain. Crossbreeding improves meat, wool, and
milk production.

            Animals are given specific names based on their sexual
condition. These names can be different for different animals. Cattle are
called bovine. A mature male is a bull and a mature female is a cow. A young
male is a bull and a young female is a heifer. An altered male is a steer and
an altered female is referred to as spayed. A newborn is a calf and a group is
a herd.

            Ovine is sheep. A mature male is a ram and a mature
female is a ewe.  A young male is a ram
lamb and a young female is a ewe lamb. An altered male is a wether and an
altered female is spayed. A newborn is a lamb and a group is a flock.

            A hog is known as a porcine.  A mature male is a boar and a mature female
is a sow. A young male is a shoat and a young female is a gilt. An altered male
is a barrow and an altered female is spayed. A newborn is called a pig and a
group is a drove.

            A chicken is a galine. A mature male is a rooster and a
mature female is a hen. A young male is a cockerel and a young female is a
pullet. An altered male is a capon and a newborn is a hick. A group of chickens
is a flock.

            These are only some of the many animals classified. The
classification helps us understand what they are and are not capable of. The
different breeding systems are also very important to try and get the most out
of the traits. They also help avoid negative traits and take advantage of the
good traits.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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