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The issue of race has plagued American society since its beginning developments of society in the United States, Racism has always been an alienating issue faced by communities on a political, economic, and social standpoint. Racism has been an ongoing controversial topic throughout history that has created a number of ongoing problems, in which negatively impacted the lives of many individuals. Our country was built from the immigration of people from an international array of backgrounds. However a myriad of white supremacist have attempted to keep members of ethnic groups from having the same opportunities as others. Racial segregation and discrimination were expressed in public institutions such as schools, libraries, etc. Although American slaves were emancipated as a result of the Civil War and then granted basic civil rights from the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendment, they continued to struggle to secure federal protection of their rights. As the number of ethnic diversity gradually increased in political systems, organizations cultivated challenging the new ethnic variation in government, such as the Klu Klux Klan. The Klu Klux Klan was the first terrorist organization in history that fought the Civil Rights Movement in the South in which brought such hatred in America, causing atrocities and violence against others simply because of their race, nationality, religion or lifestyle. When people in the South tried to exercise their constitutional rights, groups like the KKK tried to stop them, however the NAACP and the Civil Rights Movement with the help of the government came up with laws to protect their rights. The end of desegregation and racial discrimination was the resultant of an historic time period during the 1830’s and 1860’s. The Abolitionist Movement was a crusade in advocating immediate emancipation of all slaves and the end of discrimination. This anti-slavery movement consists of abolitionist in the North who incriminated slavery as ethically immoral, illegal and a violation of human rights. Radical abolitionist prompted in advancing in these goals raised an issue leading to the Civil War and the Emancipation of all slaves. Many abolitionist black and white helped held abolitionist meetings, boycott products made with slave labor, and sent signed petitions to congress. “I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation…I am in earnest–I will not equivocate– I will not excuse–I will not retreat a simple inch– AND I WILL BE HEARD”- William Lloyd Garrison. One of the many few abolitionist, William Lloyd Garrison was heard, for more than three decades he had spoken eloquently and devoltely against slavery and the rights American blacks should be inhabited to. As a result of the spread of abolitionist propounding their goals in the North in distinguishing slavery it lead in favor of black emancipation. After five bloody days of the Battle of Antietam, Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 which was a turning point in history. Since the Republican party recognized the proclamation will have no foundation post war, they committed it to be a constitutional amendment; The Thirteenth Amendment.  The Proclamation of Emancipation was a monumental time period which gave freed slaves the renewed sense of hope of a significantly better life. Being free, the former slaves were guaranteed rights of American citizenship( The 14th Amendment) and the guarantee of black men the constitutional right to vote( The 15th Amendment). Which were both passed and enforced by Congress during the Reconstruction period( 1865-1877). One would hence and assume that after the Emancipation and the passing of two Amendments life would become significantly better, however the formation of the Klu Klux Klan contributed in opposing American blacks exercising their constitutional rights, which destined for hardships and violence throughout the South. The Klu Klux Klan also referred as the KKK or the Klan was formed by six veterans soldiers in Pulaski, Tennessee in 1865. They were a group of white supremacist who had cultivated a racial terrorist organization opposing the new advancements of blacks, Jews, and other minority groups, but mostly black Americans. The group took its name from Greek word Kulos meaning circle and the English word clan. The KKK has had four major periods of activity, (1) the mid-1860s to the early 1870s, (2) 1915 to 1944, (3) the late 1940s to the early 1970s, and (4) since the mid 1970s. The original KKK was founded by a former confederate general Nathan Bedford Forrest also known as the Grand Wizard. Klan members threatened, beaten, lynched, and intimated blacks to prevent them in taking advantage of their new constitutional rights, particularly the right to vote. They masked themselvees in robes and draped sheets over their horses. In 1871, the Klu Klux Klan proliferated throughout the South  and became known as the Invisible Empire, however an act was made to make an attempt to force the acceptance of blacks and end the daunting and violent acts in the South. New groups of the KKK revived again in the early 1900s, this time being organized in Georgia by Williams J. Simmons who aided activities against unconsidered Americans. In this era, the klan grew more rapidly by the mid 1920s with two million members. Throughout the klan’s terrorist acts, members had burned crosses, whipped and murdered people because their choice of lifestyle which irritated them. The Klu Klux Klan became a powerful political organization not just in the South but in Northern and Western states. Anyhow the controversy in the public about its violent attacks wakened the organization once again in 1944. During the 1960’s a new klan emerged increasing civil rights activities causing violence and many terrorist attacks, including the bombing of the church in Alabama, the killing of three activist and etc. All throughout the late 1900s the number of new klan members increased to about 10,000, and ever since 1981 members had declines due to prosecutions of illegal actions.

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