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The organization justice theory explains the
perceptions and beliefs of organizational citizenship behaviors, organizational
commitment, job satisfaction, and job performance (Charash & Spector,
2001). The three components of the organizational justice theory are
procedural, distributive, and interactional (Cropanzano, Bowen, &
Gilliland, 2007). Each component has a different effect on employees and the
perception of justice within an organization. The three components of the
justice theory help determine commitment to the organization, satisfaction with
the job, and performance of the job (Charash & Spector, 2001). Procedural
justice is the formal allocation of processes. Distributive justice explains
the distribution of work among employees and the appropriateness of the
outcomes. Interactional justice explains how employees are treated by the organizational
leaders. The problem with procedural justice is an employee’s views of the
fairness an organization has with procedures. When a downsizing occurs,
employees feels a change in the methods and procedures related to completes a job
task (Beylerian and Kleiner, 2003). If employees begin to think they are suffering
from unfair decision-making they may develop negative attitude. Organizational leaders
must maintain communication with the employees to avoid voluntary turnover
during a downsizing, by making sure their work load remain balanced (Hopkins and
Weathington, 2006).
The concern with distributive justice is the fairness in the
workload. As the downsizing occurs in an organization, many employees begin to
leave. It increases workload on remaining employees as they have to take additional
responsibilities and also has to maintain current duties. If one employees receive
more work than another employees they begin to form negative perceptions of distributive.
Organizational leaders should make sure to keep the work distribution is equal among
employees as it would help to keep a positive attitude with the remaining employees.

Interaction justice helps describe how the immediate
supervisor of an employee influences organizational justice perceptions more
than any other leadership level. Interactional justice is has two facets:
interpersonal justice and informational justice. Interpersonal justice refers
to the dignity, respect, and sensitivity employees receive from the immediate
supervisor. Informational justice refers to the knowledge and explanations
employees receive from the immediate supervisor about the changes and
procedures (Wu, Neubert, and Xiang, 2007).

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