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The
groundwater circulation and the downward flow of pollutants through rocks and
soils are depending on the hydro geological condition of the materials more
specifically hydraulic properties such as permeability, porosity, transivity
etc (Tsegaye, 2006). The flow and chemical constituent of ground water are
controlled by the type of lithology, distribution, thickness and structure of
hydro geological units through which it moves (UNESCO, 1992; Tsegaye, 2006).Moreover
the stresses due to tectonics and weathering govern the hydro geochemical
characteristics of earth materials (Tamiru et al, 2003; Tsegaye, 2006). Proximity
of a landfill to a groundwater well is an important environmental criterion in
the landfill site selection so that wells may be protected from the runoff and
leaching of the landfill. Hence, solid waste disposal should be placed away
from water wells. Otherwise, it can have irretrievable human and environmental
effects.

As a
result, proximity from groundwater well was considered as an important
criterion for this research. Accordingly, 337 groundwater well points are
currently functional, it was obtained from Sulaymaniyah directory of Water
Resources, and Proximity Buffer tools were used to prepare buffer zones around
each well. Chang et al. (2007) described as landfill should not be sited within
50m buffer distance from water wells. However Al-Anbari et al. (2015)  used 400m and Kabite et al. (2012) used 500 m  Hasan et al. (2009) used 500- 1000m and Jamjan
(2009) used 700m as a minimum distance from which landfill can be safely sited
in (Gizachew, 2011). In this study, a buffer zone of more than 1000 m around
each and every well points was adopted in order to protect ground water from
contamination. Any distance less than 1000 
m was, thus, given a grading value of zero and any distance greater than
1000 m was given a score value of 10. (Figure 3.3)

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