Site Loader
Rock Street, San Francisco

Nine hundred and
three (903) students (448 males, 455 females) participated in this study. They were
aged from 10 to 17 years old (M=13.8,
SD=2.3). Those participants studied
in five primary schools at 5th and 6th grade, from 7th
to 9th grade in five secondary schools and from 10th to
12th grade in five high schools. Their social and economic status
varied. Those particular fifteen schools were randomly chosen from a wide range
of schools listed in Central Greece. The location of schools belonged to urban,
suburban and rural areas.

The completion of
the questionnaires was referring to PE teachers’ verbal aggressiveness,
argumentativeness and motivational climate during the physical education
lessons. The participants were informed thoroughly about the research. Their anonymous
as well as voluntary engagement was also emphasized. Students’ parents were
asked to fill in a consent form. The researcher during the process was willing
to assist and answer to any questions.  Permission
from the Greek Ministry of Education was obtained, prior to the research.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

2.2 Instruments

The Greek version of
the Verbal Aggressiveness questionnaire
was applied (Bekiari & Digelidis, 2015). It is based on the theoretical structure and Infante’s and
Wigley’s (1986) Verbal Aggressiveness Questionnaire. Students’ perceptions
regarding physical education instructors’ verbal aggressiveness, are determined
through this instrument. There are eight items in the scale (e.g., “instructor derogates
students”, “instructor makes students feel bad”). Exploratory examination
(Bekiari & Digelidis, 2015) supported the psychometric properties of the
instrument. Specifically, the fit indices were set in a satisfied level at the
confirmatory factor analysis (CFI: .97, SRMR: .02), and there was also a high
level of reliability (? = .96). The responds were valued in a 5-point
Likert-type scale ranging through 1: Strongly disagree to 5: Strongly agree.

The Greek version of
the Argumentativeness questionnaire was
applied in this study (Syrmpas & Bekiari, 2015), which relies on Myers and
Rocca (2000) questionnaire. Instructors’
argumentativeness is detected through students’ perceptions. The scale consists
of ten items (e.g., “my instructor is excited every time he/she tries to solve
disagreements with the students”, “my instructor enjoys defending his/her
opinions on an issue”). Initial examination of the instrument confirmed the
psychometric properties (Syrmpas & Bekiari, 2015). Specifically, the fit
indices were set in a satisfied level at the confirmatory factor analysis (CFI:
.98, SRMR: .05), and there was also a high level of reliability (? = .87). The
responds were valued in a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging through 1: Strongly
disagree to 5: Strongly agree.

The short version
of the Learning and Performance Orientations in Physical Education Classes
Questionnaire (LAPOPEQ) was used in order to value the Motivational climate (Papaioannou, 1994; 1998; Papaioannou, Marsh,
& Theodorakis, 2004). The questionnaire consists of two scales regarding
students’ perceptions about the motivational climate created by their
instructors. The first-seven items are referring to mastery climate (e.g., “My
instructor is mostly satisfied when every student learns something new”) and
the other six-items are referring to performance climate (e.g., “My instructor reinforces
competition among his/her students”). It was found that through CFA (CFI = .98, RMSEA = .06) the motivational
climate model adapted the data (Hu & Bentler, 1999), and there was also a
satisfied level of reliability (? = between .74 and .87). The responds were
rated in a 5-point Likert-type scale ranging through 1: Strongly disagree to 5:
Strongly agree.

2.3 Data analysis

The Statistical
Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 21.0) was used for the data analyses. The
internal consistency of the factors was examined through Cronbach’s ? reliability analysis. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to
measure the correlation between the subscales of the questionnaires. A multiple
hierarchical regression analysis was conducted in order to explore the extent
to which the perceived instructors’ argumentativeness and motivational climate
could be significant predictors of their use of verbal aggressiveness. Argumentativeness
which is considered as instructors’ personality trait was used as the first
predictor. Then mastery and performance motivational climate were included in
the second stage of analysis aiming at predicting instructors’ verbal
aggressiveness. Through two-way MANOVAs analyses were
examined differences in students’ perceptions concerning their PE teachers’
verbal aggressiveness, argumentativeness and motivational climate between
schools’ region and students’ school level, as well as between students’ gender
and class. Moreover, differences in argumentativeness and motivational
climate between the perceived level of verbal aggressiveness (low, moderate and
high) were researched by performing one-way MANOVA analysis. Furthermore, after
differences were indicated with prior findings, Univariate Analysis of
Covarience (ANCOVA) was assessed having as covariate the argumentativeness and
finally Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) was performed using
motivational climate as covariate. Due to the existing differences in MANOVAs,
ANCOVA and MANCOVA were conducted to examine the differences with some
variables being “partialled-out” of the procedure (Cohen & Cohen, 1983) by
taking the role of covariance, in order to assess the induction procedures. Statistical significance was set at .05 and Post hoc
analyses were performed using Bonferroni test. 

Post Author: admin

x

Hi!
I'm Lena!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out