Identify action is after the re-evaluation, the therapists consider to either continue therapy or refer the client to other healthcare service or discontinue service
Also, the third component of the occupational therapy process is a re-evaluation equivalent to evaluation process collecting and analysing data about the client’s occupational performance. They both provide navigational information for determining the best therapeutic route for the planning and implementation of intervention services. Schell et al., (2014). Furthermore, the reanalysis of occupational performance; is occupational therapists first step as they systematically measure, re-collect data and then compare the data obtained during the actual evaluation with the current data obtained in re-evaluation. It is vital for OT to ensure that are comparing same items during both evaluation and re-evaluation. As not using the same measures they may unable to measure comparable aspect of occupational performance and a precise valid evidence due to how the OT has affected the client’s performance. Schell et al., (2014). Review of targeted outcomes –
Intervention process is a service provided by occupational therapy practitioners in collaboration with clients to ease engagement in occupation parallel to health, well-being, and participation. However, the information gathered about the clients during the process can be then used to assist clients needs in both physical, mental, and social well-being state (AJOT, 2014) Furthermore, Intervention plan, guide actions of occupational therapy to determine types of intervention to be used to address client’s targeted outcomes. However, the intervention plan is developed in collaboration with the clients and is based on selected theories, frames of reference and evidence. While the intervention implementation is the ongoing actions taken to influence and support to improved client performance and participation. Also in this process, the client’s response is monitored and documented (AJOT, 2014).
However, the evaluation process is the systematic collection and analysis of data needed to make decisions; due to what the client wants, needs to do, can do and has done before. Therefore, occupational therapy uses the evaluation results and conclusions to plan and implement interventions to help clients to overcome barriers to health, well-being, and participation. Nevertheless, the evaluation also consists of the occupational profile and an analysis of occupational performance and targeted outcome. Schell et al., (2014) For example, the occupational profile is the step in the process that provides an understanding of the client’s background history and experience, patterns of daily living (ADL), interests, needs, values. Also, the reasons for clients seeking the service, strengths, and concerns in performing a regular occupation, as well as areas that lead to potential barriers to occupational failure. However, during the process of collecting this information, the occupational therapy will identify priorities and desired targeted outcomes that will lead the client’s engagement in an occupation that supports participation in life, health and wellness. The analysis of occupational performance is a collecting and interpreting information to identify supports and barriers related to the client’s occupational performance and identify targeted outcomes. The targeted outcomes are close result of the OT process; they describe what the clients can achieve through the process. Also, the outcome assessment information is used to plan future actions with client and to evaluate the service program to ensure both progressions (AJOT, 2014)
In an agreement with Schell et al., (2014) Occupational Therapy Process Map is used in the delivery of occupational therapy service. It provides a structure for practitioners to apply their therapeutic professional reasoning based on evidence to meet the needs of the client’s health-related problems through engagement in occupation. Furthermore, the process includes Evaluation; Occupational profile, Analysis of occupational performance, Targeted outcomes. Intervention; Plan, Implementation and Re-evaluation; of occupational performance, Review of targeted outcomes, identify action and Continue OT and Discontinue OT.
Describing the Occupational Therapy Process
Also, occupational therapy develops injury and prevention program for older adult workers and educate on home and activities modification to reduce the risk of falling and manage medication efficiently.
Furthermore, the role of an occupational therapist in Health Promotion according to The American Occupational Therapy Association (2015). For example, they understand the complex and dynamic interactions between people, their environments and the activities they wish to accomplish in their daily life, and how it would affect their health and well-being. For instance, restoring a young person’s wellbeing in school OT’s can create a health-promoting play activity for the children to be educated in also to enhance physical well-being and social skills with other children of their age. The health promotion activities can enable the children to increase control over and to improve their health as they will become more aware of their surroundings and the ability to reduce hazard risk. According to WHO, (2018) worm infection is the most significant cause of disease among 4-14 old children and Vitamin A deficiency is the single significant cause of preventable childhood blindness.
According to (Law et al.,2005 p. 1), Occupational therapists play a vital role in helping clients to participate in the occupations of everyday life. Nevertheless, Occupational therapists, focus goal is to enhance occupational performance. For example, doing and experience of occupation to enable clients to achieve their goals through participation in the occupation that is important and meaningful to them to promote overall health, well-being and life satisfaction later in life. Moreover, the therapists’ role, in general, provide support to enable clients to overcome any barriers that limit their occupational performance daily. For example, carrying out daily tasks such as getting on and off the toilet, dressing or going to the shops, getting up and down the stairs. Therapists also support the client to return to work and advice on specializing equipment on home and workplace environment or in the community such as minor adaptation like a handrail, ramp, and shower as well significant adaptation such as level access shower, stair lift, adjustment for wheelchair access and ramp. Executive, H. (2018).
Occupational therapist’s role is very boarded as they work with adults and children of all ages with different needs. They also take a whole person approach to both mental, physical health and wellbeing to achieve their full potential RCOT (2018) which makes their profession unique. Furthermore, occupational therapists work in various setting including health and social care services, housing, overseas, prison, education, voluntary organizations and private settings.
The role of occupational therapists in enabling people to achieve or restore well-being
However, walking can restore and maintain several benefits to people living with diabetes health and wellbeing. For example, is one of the practical and necessary forms of exercise that helps to reduce their blood glucose levels. According to (Diabetes UK, (2018), walking can lower blood that is staying stubbornly high because of stress or mild illness such as colds. In addition to this, people who are on insulin and have difficulties reducing their insulin does, however, walking can be a useful occupation for getting their glucose levels back closer to normal levels. Therefore, after walking exercise, it is vital for them to test their sugar level often to ensure that their blood sugar does not go too low as they can be at risk of health completion.
Also, due to Parkkari, J. et al. (2000) also provide additional evidence that regular exercise improves health such as physical fitness and function, body composition by reducing body excess fat. In other words, it helps to speed up the metabolism and helps to turn the body to burn fat. Also decreasing the risk of coronary heart disease, serum high- density lipoprotein (HDL)cholesterol levels, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, colon cancer and end of life mortality. Furthermore, walking may also prevent osteoporotic fractures by reducing the risk of both osteoporosis and falls. Due to this regular exercise can less likely for an individual to develop these diseases mention above; however, it can also improve their psychological health by reducing stress level as well as enhancing mood.
In an occupational therapy setting, there are several occupations which play vital roles in human health and well-being. For example, walking has identified as leisure occupation that plays an essential role in maintaining individual health and wellbeing. According to ParkKari, J. et al. (2000) have also highlighted some health benefit of physical activity in the form of walking. For example, walking is the most effective outdoor recreational activity for reaching recommended physical activity targets by doctors to patients who are inactivity help them to stay physically active and healthy. Nevertheless, walking is a natural activity, which is convenient, inexpensive and required no skills or equipment. It is also a safe form of sustained dynamic aerobic of exercise that can be fulfilled without interruption as well as occupational, home and recreational settings.
The important of occupation and health and well-being of human
More recently, (WHO, 2014) stated that health is a physical, mental, and social well-being without diseases and condition. Also, well-being is a state of how an individual can deal with changes and challenges like coping with the normal stresses of every life. ( Wilcock, A. A. & Hocking, C., 2015) well-being is an individual perception of a state of happiness, quality of life, physical and mental health, peace, confidence and self-esteem that associated to his or her occupations, relationships, and environments.
According to Occupational Performance Model – (OPM Australia 1997) occupational performance refers to a person’s ability to perform a required activities or occupations that are domain to his or her occupation roles to meet life needs. Including routines, leisure both internal and external environment, tasks and sub-tasks such as self-maintenance, that are meaningful and productive and in doing can increase their occupational performance. Moreover, Health also has a lack unclear definition, as for many years health has been defined in a negative term, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 1948 health ” a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. The definition has been unchanged for more than 60 years (Brook, R. H., 2017)
Defining occupation in occupational therapy for many years has been proved difficult to get a concise definition as the word link to common daily language. For example, the term occupation according to the (WFOT 2018), refers to do with everyday activities that people do as individuals, families and with communities that occupy them to improve their quality of life. Furthermore, by comparison with another author occupation is defined as the active or ‘doing’ process of a person engaged in goal-directed and intrinsically gratifying, and culturally appropriate activity. (Evans, K 1987)
This essay begins by defining occupation and occupational performance as understood by occupational therapists. Furthermore, the theme will also examine one occupation that is vital to human health and wellbeing. For example, walking more often. Lastly, this essay will finalise by explaining the role of occupational therapists in enabling people’s occupational performance to achieve or restore well-being and then describing the occupational therapy process.