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HISTORY OF FIBER OPTICS

 

In 1800s a British physicists by the name
of John Tyndall discovered that light could be bent around a corner through a
curved spout of running water 1. In this experiment he permitted water to
spout from a tube, the light on reaching the limiting surface of air and water
was totally reflected and seemed to be washed downwards by the descending
liquid. What he had discovered was the idea known as Total Internal Reflection.
It is this idea that is the basis of Fiber Optics.

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The first practical application of this was
used in the United Kingdom during the 1930s in the medical field. An un-coated
plastic “channel” was used to guide light to an area of interest for inspection
2. Also during the 1930s, other ideas were developed with this newly found
technology such as transmitting images through a fiber. The idea of
transmitting an image through bundles of glass fibers was introduced in the 50s
1. This idea of light propagating through a fiber was rapidly expanding.
During the 1960s, Lasers were introduced as efficient light sources and in the
70s the refinement of pure low-loss glass fibers was establish 1 3. With
these developments, fiber optic transmission became practical and advantageous
for many applications.

 

In 1980s small telephone companies were
allowed by the United State government to compete with the AT&T after it
deregulated the service. Many other telephone companies like MCI and Sprint
took advantage of this opportunity and installed their regional fiber optics
telecommunications networks throughout the world. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE
OF CONTENTS

 

 

              HISTORY OF FIBER OPTICS
——————————————————- 1

           REPORT BACKGROUND————————————————-

__________________________________________________2

Acknowledgements
_______________________________________2

1.0
Introduction_____________________________________________4

1.1 Problem
definition________________________________________4

1.2
Scope__________________________________________________5

1.3 Project aims
and objectives_________________________________5-6

1.01
Aim___________________________________________________5

1.02
Objectives_________________________________________6

2.0 Review of
existing knowledge_______________________________7-9

2.1
Research_______________________________________________7

2.1.1 Journals_________________________________________7

            2.1.2
Books___________________________________________7

2.2 Review of
existing___________________________________7

2.2.1
Voltage___________________________________________7

2.2.2
Current___________________________________________8

            2.2.3
Resistance________________________________________8

            2.2.4 Ohm’s Law________________________________________8

2.3
Costs_____________________________________________9

            2.4
Parts Cost Estimate__________________________________9

 

 

 

 

 

Acknowledgements

 

Thanks for all the staff in the
university library and friend for helping me to support and develop my Report.

 

 

 

 

REPORT
BACKGROUND

Fiber-optic communication is a
method of transmitting information from one

place to another by sending pulses
of light through an optical fiber. The light forms

an electromagnetic carrier wave that
is modulated to carry information. First

developed in the 1970s, fiber-optic
communication systems have revolutionized the

telecommunications industry and
have played a major role in the advent of the

Information Age. Because of its
advantages over electrical transmission, optical

fibers have largely replaced copper
wire communications in core networks in the

developed world.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.2
OBJECTIVE

 

The objective of this project is to
design and built a two-ways audio

Communication by using an optical
cable. Since the fiber optic is one of the new

fields in Malaysia, so the
exploration in the application of an optical cable in the

communication system is very
important for the future. Plus there are more

exploration should be done in this
project to analyze on how to convert audio signal

to the form that can be used in
transmitting using optical cable with minimum loss

 

 

 

 

1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT

Nowadays, optical fibers are widely
used in communication, which permits

transmission over longer distances and
at higher data rates than other forms of

communications. Optical fibers are
used instead of copper wires because signals

travel along them with less loss,
and they are immune to electromagnetic interference.

Plus, the signal security in the
fiber optic cable is more guaranteed than in the copper

cables. This because the
transmitted signal through the fiber does not radiate. Unlike

in copper cables, a transmitted
signal cannot be drawn from a fiber without

tampering it. Thus the optical fiber
communication provides 100% signal security

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LITERARUTE REVIEW

 

BACKGROUND STUDY

 

Cable TV shows, phone calls, or
Internet files normally travel through copper

wire cables in the form of
electrical signals. In a fiber optic system, a transmitter

converts these electrical signals
into pulses of light. It shoots them down glass fibers,

until they reach the far end of the
line. Here, receivers re-convert the light pulses to

electrical signals, which then are
turned back into voice, video, and data files.

 

 

Enormous Bandwidths

 

The information carrying capacity
of a transmission system is directly

proportional to the carrier
frequency of the transmitted signals. The optical

carrier frequency is in the range
of 1014 Hz
while the radio frequency is about

106
Hz. Thus the optical fibers have enormous
transmission bandwidths and

high data rate. Using wavelength
division multiplexing operation, the data

rate or information carrying
capacity of optical fibers is enhanced to many

orders of magnitude.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Low transmission loss

Due to the usage of ultra low loss
fibers and the erbium doped silica

fibers as optical amplifiers, one
can achieve almost loss less transmission.

Hence for long distance
communication fibers of 0.002 dB/km are used. Thus

the repeater spacing is more than 100
km.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Immunity to cross talk

 

Since optical fibers are dielectric
wave guides, they are free from any

electromagnetic interference (EMI)
and radio frequency interference (RFI).

Since optical interference among
different fibers is not possible, cross talk is

negligible even many fibers are cabled
together.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Electrical isolation

Optical fibers are made from silica
which is an electrical insulator.

Therefore they do not pick up any
electromagnetic wave or any high current

lightening. It is also suitable in
explosive environment.

 

 

 

 

 

• SPEED: Fiber optic networks operate at high
speeds – up into the gigabits
• BANDWIDTH: large carrying capacity
• DISTANCE: Signals can be transmitted further
without needing to be “refreshed” or strengthened.
• RESISTANCE: Greater resistance to electromagnetic
noise such as radios, motors or other nearby cables.
• MAINTENANCE: Fiber optic cables costs much less to
maintain.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Optical fiber cables

In
practical fibers, the cladding is usually coated with a toughresin buffer layer,which
may be further surrounded by a jacket layer, usually plastic. These layersadd
strength to the fiber but do not
contribute to its optical wave guide properties.Rigid fiber assemblies
sometimes put light-absorbing (“dark”) glass between thefibers, to
prevent light that leaks out of one fiber from entering another. Thisreducescross-talkbetween the fibers, or reducesflarein fiber bundle imagingapplications.Modern cables
come in a wide variety of sheathings and armor, designed for applications
such as direct burial in trenches, high voltage isolation, and dual use

 

 

references:

1-     
https://www.openoptogenetics.org/images/f/fb/Fundamentals_of_Fiber_Optics.pdf

2-     
https://www.gizmodo.com.au/2011/05/alan-jones-confuses-laser-beams-with-fibre/

3-     
http://www.olson-technology.com/mr_fiber/fiber-history.htm

4-     
http://eprints.utem.edu.my/1918/1/Optical_Fiber_Audio_Communication_System_-_24_pages.pdf

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