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Here 9% of the respondents gave positive
response and recommended to installed the solar system because it decreases crime rate in night time, 18.3 of the respondents also recommended
to installed the solar system because it helps
in increasing the conforms of life, 2.7% of the respondents also recommended to installed the
solar system because it help in increase the
security level, 4% of the respondents also recommended to installed the solar system because it helps in increasing the study hours of kids in night
time, 6% of the
respondents also recommended to installed the solar system because it help in increase the sleeping hours at day time, 29.3% of
the respondents also
recommended to installed the solar system because it help in increase it helps in increases the education level which
leads to increase the standard of life, 5% of the respondents also recommended to installed the
solar system because it helps in increasing
the rest, 5.7% of the
respondents also recommended to installed the solar system because  it helps in
increasing the education level by providing light especially in night time, 20%
of the respondents
also recommended to installed the solar system because it helps in reducing crime rate in night time.

4.9.
Binary Logistic Regression for Affecting the Adoption of Solar Technology

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This study has applied
the binary logit model to estimate the factors affecting the adoption of solar
technology and these are presented here below. Table 4.17 and 4.18 provides the
binary logistic regression result and the marginal effects are presented that
makes the interpretation much easier.  Table 4.18 portrays the
summary of estimation of logic model 1 where dependent variable is adoption of
solar energy while independent variables are initial cost (icost_1) which is
proxy of price, load shedding (ls_2), numbers of years of education (edu_2)
which is proxy of knowledge and awareness, purposes of solar energy (purp) and
alternative of solar energy available (As) which is proxy of Number of
substitutes available.

From the above
findings, initial cost (Icost-1) is negatively insignificant. It indicates that
initial instalment cost has no affect on adoption of solar energy. By observing
the results, LS-2 is positively significant and 10% change in dependent
variable is due to one unit change in independent variable that is 10% change
in adoption of solar energy is due to one unit change in load shedding of
electricity it means that more the load shedding, the more will be adoption of
solar energy. Education is positively insignificant. It indicates that numbers
of years of education has no affect on adoption of solar energy. Purposes of
solar energy (purp) is positively significant and 3% change in dependent
variable is due to one unit change in independent variable that is 3% change in
adoption of solar energy is due to one unit change in  purposes of solar energy it means that more
the number of appliances usage, the more will be adoption of solar energy.
Alternative of solar energy available (As) is also positively significant and
4% change in dependent variable is due to one unit change in independent
variable that is 4% increase in adoption of solar energy is due to one unit
increase in alternative of solar energy it depicts that more the number of
alternative of solar energy available, the more will be adoption of solar
energy because solar energy is relatively cheaper than other energy.Table 4.20 portrays the
summary of estimation of logic model 2 where dependent variable is
sustainability of solar system (s1) while independent variables are income of
respondents (y2_1), maintenance cost on solar system (mcost_1), durability of
solar system (d) and numbers of years of education (edu_2) which is proxy of
knowledge and awareness. From the above findings the overall model is
statistically significant.

From the above
findings, it is found that income (y2_1) has insignificant impact on
sustainability of solar system. Maintenance cost (mcost-1) has a positive
impact on sustainability of solar system and is statistically significant and
0.00049% change in dependent variable is due to one unit change in independent
variable that is one unit increase in maintenance cost will bring 0.00049%
increase in sustainability of solar system.Durability (d) has also a positive
impact on sustainability of solar system but is statistically significant and
1.7% change in dependent variable is due to one unit change in independent
variable that is 1.7% increase in sustainability of solar system is due to one
unit increase in durability. And Education (edu_2) has found to be positively
insignificant. This implies that more the people are educated does not have
impact on sustainability of solar energy.

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5. INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents conclusions drained from the results
and also presents recommendations made and policy recommendations. The
conclusions and recommendations made were based on addressing the aim of the
study which is to analyze the factors affecting the adoption of Solar
Technology in village Regi, District Peshawar.

5.1. CONCLUSIONS

In the light of above results, it is concluded that price
of solar system such as initial installation cost negatively influenced the
adoption of solar technology. This implies that the more the price of solar
system, the less will the adoption of solar technology. 

By observing the results, Load shedding is significant and
positively influences the adoption of solar system. This implies that more the
load shedding, the more will be adoption of solar energy.

In the light of above findings, it is concluded that most
of the respondents are aware of solar systems through shopkeepers, neighbours
and friends and minority of the respondents are not aware of solar systems.
Looking to the findings of the study, it is concluded that most of the
respondents i.e., 54.3% of the respondents have never received any formal or
informal training on solar systems and 45.7% of the respondents had received
any formal or informal training on solar systems in those 38% of the respondents had received through shopkeepers,
4.3% of the respondents through neighbours and 3.3% of the respondents through
friends. This means that the majority
of the respondents have never received any formal or informal training on solar
systems. This indicates that the level of knowledge and awareness of
solar energy and how to utilize it was relatively low. In the light of above
findings, it is concluded that majority of the respondents i.e., 43% of the
respondents had attained 11 years of schooling. This implies that most of the
respondents had attained low education level and minority had received high
education level. It is probably to conclude that the adoption of solar system
will be significantly increases if the government give free primary education
then education creates awareness which will tends to increase the adoption of solar
technology. This implies that the more
the level of knowledge and awareness and number of years of schooling
attained, the greatly the demand for and adoption of solar technology will be
affected.

Looking to the findings of the study, it is concluded that most
of the people in village Regi adopted the solar energy. Looking at the
consumption pattern of PV-users, we can see that majority of them are relying
on this technology for their most immediate needs i.e. lighting, running fans
and charging phones. It is concluded that purposes of solar energy is
positively significant. This means that more the number of appliances usages,
the more will be adoption of solar energy.

From the above findings, it is concluded that Alternative
of solar energy available (As) is also positively significant and it depicts
that more the number of alternative available, the more will be adoption of
solar energy because solar energy is relatively cheaper than other energy.

From the findings, it is concluded that income level of
respondents has a positive impact on sustainability of solar system but is
statistically insignificant. This implies that the level of income does not
influence the sustainability of solar system.

Looking to the findings of the study, it is concluded that
Maintenance cost has a positive impact on sustainability of solar system and is
statistically significant. This implies that the more the respondents spend on
repairing of solar system, the more will be sustainability of solar system.

From the above findings, it is concluded that Durability
has a significantly positive relationship with sustainability of solar system. This
implies that the more the durability of solar system, the more will be
sustainability of solar system.

In the light of above findings, it is concluded that number
of years of schooling which as proxy of Education level is positively
insignificant and linked to awareness .i.e. education creates awareness. But
here number of years of schooling that is education level has found to be has no
impact on sustainability of solar energy.

5.2. RECOMMENDATIONS

In the light of the above findings, the researcher
recommends that

1.     
In Pakistan, the Government and particularly the Ministry
of Energy should have to offer free training and schooling to raise the level
of knowledge and awareness on the
usage of sun energy.  This could be accomplished via seminars and workshops where people are
invited for free guidance, training and demonstration on the utilization and advantages of solar power.

2.     
The Government of Pakistan ought to impose zero rating tax on solar gadget in order to
affect decrease pricing consequently making it more low-cost for buy
and installation of sun
based energy. This would be of help particularly for those who are settled in the villages. On other hand,
it should be needed to arrange such a plan that permits the people to pay agreeable little sum of cash per month in a bid to
raise the usage of solar electricity.

3.     
The village used different resources of power, which had been n most cases wood based totally .The
Government and particularly the Ministry of Energy should have to find the solution for deforestation by given the
awareness to community about solar energy. And the society ought to be encouraged
to use solar power because it is less expensive and
more easily available than the
alternative assets of electricity. 

 

5.4 POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

Access to energy plays a significant role in attaining
sustainable development as strong correlation exists between human development
index and energy development index, (IEA, 2012). Given the huge potential for
Solar energy in Pakistan, remote villages and communities can significantly
benefit from it. Nevertheless, absence of vibrant policies and institutes for
promotion of solar energy are responsible for a slower and limited transition
toward it. This study shows a strong social acceptance for the technology. As
per the survey, proper markets and relevant expertise are available in the
local areas for solar technology. Trust in the technology is quite high amongst
the users. But high installation cost and absence of fiscal tool for its
promotion are major barriers impeding its growth. In the light of the results
of this study, following initiatives can speed up the transition to solar
energy:

1.     
One of the principal factors responsible for slower
transition to solar or renewable energy is lack of competition. Procurement of
solar technology is very costly compared to its fossil fuel counterpart given
the subsidized provision of the latter. Supply of conventional energy at lower
tariff is hindering investment in Renewable Energy Technology. Initiatives
shall be taken for revision of the said subsidies. Equal opportunities for
investors in Renewable energy shall be made. Furthermore, incentives to the
private sector in the form of tax holidays and the like can accelerate
investment in this sector.

2.     
Subsidized provision of solar PV panels to the poor class
can ensure electricity access to the deserving. Devolution of this task to
local bodies can help in identification of poor and thus extension of the
project to the needy.

3.     
Feed in Tariff (FIT) has been a very effective tool for
promotion of Renewable energy across the globe. It offers long term contracts
and cost-based compensations to Renewable Energy producers. Government also
guarantees purchase of the electricity produced. This policy should be extended
to residential scale where home-owners can benefit from it.

4.     
Batteries which are used as energy storage devices are a
routine maintenance cost linked with solar electrification. This cost
represents a major financial challenge for users. Allocation of energy funds to
local bodies and establishment of local institutions which can partially
finance maintenance funds will help in making the Solar PV system more useful
and will relieve the poor customers from this financial burden.

5.     
Lack of adequate funding for renewable energy is one of the
major challenges for slow uptake of solar energy in the country. The government
should make the most of opportunities as offered by the ADB, particularly in
terms of low interest loans, for setting up environmentally clean energy
infrastructure and for extending solar energy to villages which have not yet
been connected to the national grid.

6.     
Last but not least, government should advertise any
designed policies for promotion of Renewable Energy Technology, so that maximum
people could benefit from it.

5.5.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The limitations of this study were

1.     
Firstly, the resource and finance constraint were the biggest
limitation of the study.

2.     
Secondly the majority of the respondents were not easily
understands the questions and gives the irrelevant answers to the questions
because they are less educated. 

3.     
Thirdly, there are no secondary data available and no documents
of such data might be found, thus, gathering the primary data from respondent
is too difficult task.

4.     
Fourth limitation is unlimited time were required to
collect the primary data from the respondents and then analyzed it.

5.     
Lastly, The Remoteness of the area was also a limitation of
it its own kind.

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