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CHAPTER 2

THEORETICAL
FRAMEWORK

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1.       
Digital
Literacy

Firstly,
we should synchronize the definition of literacy the writer use in this paper.
Literacy here is the same with reading and writing skills that are able to be
train, to be taught, and to be learned in school or any other places. Yet,
literacy is an everywhere situated and is not separable with practices. (Pahl
& Rowsell, 2005, p. 3). For example, if one goes to the bank and about to
signing a bank check, and the person filling the form of the check. While
filling the check, that person is doing what is called literacy practices. Then
we could see here ‘filling the check’ is not merely caused by the ability to
write, no. ‘Filling the check’ here what we call a social practice because it
is related to something we do in real life, and ‘banking’ is the correct
definition of the social practice of the example. Furthermore, we could see the
importance of literacy studies as a social practice because literacy now has
advanced as a life-skill in any cultural activity (Dewayanti &
Retnaningdyah, 2017, p. 10).

Surefire,
reading and writing are still very much at the heart of digital literacy.
Nevertheless, given the new and ever-changing ways we use technology to receive
and communicate information, digital literacy also encompasses a broader range
of skills—everything from reading on a Kindle to gauging the validity of a website
or creating and sharing YouTube videos. Digital literacy is the set of skills
required for full participation in a net of society (Colin & Michele,
2008). Digital Literacy includes knowledge, skills, and behaviors involving the
effective use of digital devices such as smartphones, tablets, laptops and
desktop PCs for purposes of communication, expression, collaboration and
advocacy. While digital literacy initially focused on digital skills and
stand-alone computers, the focus has shifted from stand-alone to network
devices including the Internet and social media. Paul Gilster simplified the
term digital literacy in his 1997 book Digital Literacy. Gilster (1998) described
digital literacy as the usage and comprehension of information in the digital
age. He also emphasized the importance of digital technologies as an
“essential life skill.”

Digital
literacy has a big difference from computer literacy and digital skills.
Computer literacy refers to knowledge and skills in using traditional
computers, such as desktop PCs and laptops. Computer literacy focuses only on
practical skills in using software application packages. Furthermore, digital
skills is a more contemporary term and are limited to practical abilities in
using digital devices, such as laptops and smartphones. Moreover, digital
literacy is the marrying of the two terms digital and literacy. However, it is
much more than a combination of the two terms. Digital information is a
symbolic representation of data, represented by number zero and one, and literacy
refers to the ability to read for knowledge, write coherently, and think
critically about the written word.

A
digitally literate individual will possess a range of digital skills, knowledge
of the basic principles of computing devices, and skills in using computer
networks. The individual has the ability to engage in online communities and
social networks while following to behavioral protocols. The individual is able
to find, capture, and evaluate information. Digital literacy requires the
individual to understand the societal issues raised by digital technologies and
possess critical thinking skills. These skills can be possessed through digital
experiences that pushes individuals to think in a variety of ways through a
multitude of media platforms. The evolution of digital media has quickly
integrated into literacy.

Despite
of the easiness the digital literacy could bring to our life; digital literacy
does not replace traditional forms of literacy. Digital literacy does not take
over the traditional literacy, in fact, digital literacy builds upon the
foundation of traditional forms of literacy (Jenkins, 2009). Furthermore, digital
literacy allows individuals to communicate and learn in through a plethora of
ways. Different kinds of skills ranging from social to critical thinking enable
individuals to interpret the meanings of digital devices.

Digital
literacy has positive effects on skills important for successful learning also.
Students can access information more easily, as a growing amount of data is
available in digital repositories that are much easier to access than traditional,
paper-based resources for learning. Furthermore, UNESCO (2011) stated that managing
information is a digital literacy component that students acquire and use in
their private lives when joining online communities and keeping up with the
diverse networks they are a part of integrating and evaluating information, on
the other hand, are skills that have to be taught in the classroom, with the
teacher acting as an expert in evaluating information, showing students the
differences between reliable and useless digital resources.

There
are so many ways in applying the digital literacy into language classroom. One
of the way to implement this is by using project of short movie. In such
project, the students are able to express their understanding of language and
its culture by using act and role-playing in the short movie. Moreover, the use
of digital literacy means that the students are able to use modes that are
available inside the digital literacy. Only by giving music to certain scene
could give the viewer various feelings toward the scenario. This is what modes
could bring from the short movie, which is called multimodal.

 

2.       
Multimodal
Literacy

Multimodal
literacy means how meaning is represented in different modes (Pahl & Rowsell, 2005, p. 27). The modes could
be in form of visual, linguistic, aural or tactile. Nowadays with the
improvement of the technology students are now able not only read, decode, skim
and scan the text, but also they could use the modes such as texts, the font
they use, editing and rendering images, and so on. From one small amount of
information, we can understand the semiotic out of it.

So
many images we use in public communication (Cope & Kalantzis, 2000, p.
179). We could see how the faucet is colored red or blue for no reason, thus we
could understand the meaning of the sign, instead of only the color blue and
red. Thus, texts and images could have more than one modes. The modes also could
be related to the tactile or the sense in our body (Cope & Kalantzis, 2000,
p. 182). One could use braille to understand the words that is written on it.
This means that we could also communicate via sense of touch. We also have not
only in physical appearance, but also has “secondary materiality”. This kind of
material is worked on the area of cultural and semiotic. For example, one
chosen rare diction. He might use rare diction to show that he is high in
academic.

Furthermore
multimodal literacy representing meaning through text and image (Pahl &
Rowsell, 2005, p. 30). For example, when students are making project and record
a digital audio-visual, they could use not only the script of the explanation
of their project, but also the camera angle, the position of the things, and
also their movement in their recording. Moreover, there are also creativity in
textual forms. Children tend to be guided more by other modes such as the
visual, kinesthetic, three-dimensional, and gestural modes. For example, a drawing
of a child when they are asked to draw their close persons, he/she draw only
lines inside a circle. Although the drawing seems not logical, but for him/her,
the drawing is meaningful and it could be representing his/her family.

 

 

3.       
Digital
literacy in Education

We
can use multimodal literacy in school as Ho, Anderson, and Leong (2011, p. 10)
also provided in their book, the NLE curriculum framework encourages teacher
self-reflection on practice, curriculum content, and practices. With this, too,
teacher from various subject could work together in order to develop the
students’ literacy skill. The teachers also could give the students task which
linking the offline and online learning by doing the cooperative practice.
Additionally, Abram (2015, p. 2) explains how technology is helpful in order to
help the students’ literacy skills. Technology could be used as a primary tool
in computational purposes and to access social networking sites. Education
could gather the big opportunity in using technology. The blended learning
strategy could be used in online instruction and yet the approach centers is on
the content rather than teaching practice.

 

4.       
Language
Testing

Testing
is a technique to obtain information (Hopkins and Stanley, 1981). Most language
tests measure one’s ability to perform language, that is, to speak, write,
read, or listen to a subset of language. According to Mayo (1980), some
important reasons tests are administered in today’s schools are to provide
diagnostic information about individuals and group performance, assess the
learning progress of individuals and groups, predict future academic
performance, and evaluate the effectiveness of instruction.           

At
the end of a semester, teachers often give students an achievement test. According
to Tinambunan (1988, p. 27), an achievement test should measure clearly defined
learning outcomes that are in harmony with the instructional objectives. The test
that can measure the intended learning outcome must have a good quality. Bachman
(2003, p. 18) states that in developing language tests, we must take into account
considerations and follow procedures that are characteristic of tests and measurement
in the social sciences. Teachers can have a good test by developing it through
proper stages.

According
to Sulistyo (2002, p. 42-48), test development is a thorough and systematic
procedure to follow in making a set of test. There are consecutive standard procedures
that a test developer needs to follow in order to develop a good test. It starts
with the formulation of the test objectives. Then, competences to be measured are
derived from the competence standards and basic competences. The next step is the
construction of blueprints. Then, the blueprints need to be reviewed. The next
step is item writing. The items already written are then assembled into a set
of test. When the test items are arranged in the form of a test consisting of
sub tests or test items, then it comes to the process of expert review.
Following this stage, there are two other possible steps that may be taken:
putting the assembled items in the item bank in which the tests are kept before
it is used, or using the test as planned. After that, the test can be
administered. Then there comes another important process called test analysis.
The outcome of the test analysis reflects the quality of the test.

The
results of language tests are most often reported as numbers or scores, and it
is these scores, ultimately, that test users will make use of (Bachman and
Palmer, 1996, p. 193). The scoring methods used to arrive at scores must be
decided earlier before he test is held. Alderson, Clapham, and Wall (1995, p.
148) state: Decisions need to be taken on whether simply to add marks up to
arrive at a total score for the test, or whether to give some items more
importance than others. Testers need to decide which candidates can be
considered to have performed adequately, and thus to have passed the test and
which have failed.

Each
item in a test must be well-constructed based on the type of the items. For
multiple-choice question type, the criteria are every item must use clear and
simple language, measure only one formulated problem, use proper grammar and,
avoid any form that might provide clues for the test takers (Gronlund and
Waugh, 2009:93-106).

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