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AbstractThe goal of this research is to determine the human mind’s fragility and how that could be affected negatively if it is misused or meddled with. The result may take the form of mental patterns that affect a human both physically and mentally. The question mentioned to be answered is: What are the effects or conditions made by the tender brain in response to an appalling situation? The two individuals that will be psychologically analyzed in this study are American Pop singer, Michael Jackson, and American mathematician, John Nash, respectively. The initial approach will be to examine their diagnosed mental illnesses and the sources caused by it such as experiences. These experiences can include traumatic encounters and abuse or mistreatment by one or more individuals. Then, research will be conducted on the subject’s personal life or background and significant information revealed by the examined subject in interrogative situations. After that, an analyzation will be made on the individual’s brain and how it was affected. This inspection will include any symptoms the subject may emanate including a change in behavior or unhealthy habits. Lastly, all of the information gathered and analyzation of that particular individual will be connected leading to a final conclusion describing the subject. Keywords: Vitiligo, Somatic symptom disorder, schizophreniaIntroduction Somatic symptom disorder, also known as somatoform disorder or SSD, is a mental disorder that affects the body resulting in symptoms that include physical pain. The individual who falls victim to this disorder may spend long periods of time inspecting themselves in a mirror and attempting to mend the flaw they perceive. Another symptom a person may experience is frequent comparisons of their looks with other individuals and emotional distress resulting from it. The victim may or may not have any relationship with the individuals they are comparing themselves with. Lastly, the victim will avoid any type of social events that may involve photography. Other difficulties that can tie with SSD are intrusive thoughts and insomnia. Famous American Pop singer, Michael Jackson suffered from Somatic symptom disorder and underwent an excessive amount of cosmetic surgery. Eventually, Michael developed a dependency to drugs such as pain-killers and anesthetics which ultimately led him to his death. Schizophrenia is a well-known disorder that interferes with an individual’s ability to understand reality and manage emotions. Although the exact cause is unknown, environmental and genetic factors has been believed partake a role in its development. Some symptoms may include delusions, mental confusion, anxiety, concentration difficulty, hallucinations, and fatigue. The disorder can also affect an individual’s speech causing them to retain an incoherent or rapid form of speech. The disorder is usually permanent, but can fade overtime with the help of medication and psychotherapy. American mathematician John Forbes Nash Jr. became plagued with schizophrenia around his 30s. Nash was described as delusional and often hallucinated. He would meander around the halls in a trance in the halls of Princeton University and leave indecipherable scribbles on blackboards. He was denoted as “The Phantom of Fine Hall”. The upbringing of schizophrenia and somatoform disorder plaguing an individual’s mind can be caused by outside influences such as the condition of a family’s relationships or from other sources including friendships. Another cause can be genetic and passed down by generations.Body During the development to his career as a young boy, Michael Jackson had undergone a lot of difficulties occurring in his youth such as his father’s disapproval of his appearance and character, the loss of his youth as he began his career, atrocious acne that generated his immense self-hatred, and the creation of a masked identity based on society’s standards. According to Jackson’s autobiography, Moonwalk, Jackson had allegedly stated that he had received surgical operation on his nose and chin. “I have had my nose altered twice and I recently added a cleft to my chin, but that is it” (Michael Jackson, Moonwalk). Jackson had also previously undergone surgery targeting his scalp after a fire accident during the process of filming a Pepsi advertisement. During an interview in 1993 with Oprah Winfrey, Jackson had revealed that he suffered from vitiligo, a disorder that causes the loss of natural skin pigment. Jackson stated that he inherited it from his father’s side and, due to his career, this led to numerous attempts of concealing the disorder,  “Michael: Okay, but number one,this is the situation. I have a skin disorder that destroys the pigmentation of the skin, it’s something that I cannot help. Okay. But when people make up stories that I don’t want to be who I am it hurts me. It’s in my family, my father said it’s on his side. I can’t control it, I don’t understand, I mean, it makes me very sad. I don’t want to go into my medical history because that is private, but that’s the situation here… we tried to control it and using make-up evens it out because it makes blotches on my skin”(Michael Jackson, The Oprah Winfrey Show). Also in 1993, Jackson called off continuing his Dangerous World Tour in order to receive treatment for his painkiller addiction which was prescribed after the incident involving his scalp injury. A common symptom of Somatic symptom disorder previously mentioned was excessively viewing one’s appearance and inspecting every area of it. Michael had been extremely concerned with his looks for most of his life and has rigorously attempted to fix any detail he believed to be flawed on his body. With all these medical-related occurrences, Jackson’s self-confidence had decreased drastically. His relationship with his father did not help. Michael has stated that he does not truly know or understand his father. Around the Jackson Five Era,  Jackson’s preceding musical group, Michael mainly spent time with his father on rehearsals for tracks on their albums. Jackson has claimed that he hasn’t had many memories of his father or childhood, but frequently remembers the beatings his father would give him if he didn’t perform a task correctly during practice session with the Jackson Five. In reference to The New York Daily News, an article pertaining to Jackson and his father stated, “Michael Jackson concluded, “We had a turbulent relationship,” adding, “Most of the time we just rehearsed. We always rehearsed” (Michael Jackson, The New York Daily News).With these issues regarding his physical health and relationships, Michael had attempted to repress his pain. A solution that is frequently used to ignore problems at hand so much that it has become a natural and instinctive coping mechanism. In addition to ignoring a conflict, some individuals may also cope by using drugs such as antidepressants and painkillers to numb their suffering. Jackson had used this strategy as well. While Nash began conceptualizing ground breaking discoveries in mathematics and contributing to particular fields of study such as Game Theory, the study of the use of mathematical models for the differences and resolutions between decision makers described as rational, his erratic symptoms became apparent in the 1950s when he was around 30 years old. His behavior had become peculiar and he was experiencing frequent hallucinations and paranoia. According to Scientific American, “Over the next several decades, he was hospitalized several times, and was on and off antipsychotic medications”(Rachael Rettner, Scientific American). Nash’s schizophrenia may have been passed down to him by a family member due studies showing that this illness is hereditary. What is believed is that schizophrenia is caused by a genetic mutation involving multiple genes and the mutations effects most likely interrupts the brain’s development. Other research suggests that schizophrenia may occur when a certain gene appointed to the development of significant brain chemicals begins to malfunction. The symptoms that Nash began to display were common for those with the schizophrenia illness. His compulsive behavior and paranoia had affected his career and family life along with his social standing. He was eventually taken away from his wife, Alicia Nash, to be hospitalized for his illness. Over time, Nash learns to ignore the voices in his head due to his boredom with them. This could be considered a coping method that an individual can perform if they refuse or can not afford medication or treatment. According to an interview with Nash himself, “I began to tire of certain types of irrational thinking . I was doing things at the time, studying or doing some calculations. So it may be that the delusional thinking began to come unsatisfying” ( John Nash, Schizophrenia Daily News Blog). Although it is still unclear on what truly caused Nash’s illness, psychologists have created a number of possibilities of his schizophrenia’s upbringing. In reference to Living with schizophrenia, “As was the habit at the time the doctors tried to ascribe a cause to his illness based on his earlier life: was it the pressure of his work or his new fatherhood which had precipitated the illness? His psychoanalyst, using a Freudian approach, even postulated that it was all due to latent homosexuality” (Living with Schizophrenia). Distractions is one of the strategies used as a coping mechanism used for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. A coping mechanism Nash used with his studies during his career. Distractions can assist in keeping your attention away on what hurts the mind or things that could make the victim feel like they’re drowning and overwhelmed with whatever issues they are undergoing. However, several types of distractions exist. To further note, Neura states that: There are three key ‘distraction’ approaches: cognitive distraction, behavioural distraction, and physiological distraction…Cognitive distracters can include reading aloud, humming, as well as voice mastery..Behavioural distractors are largely social, with the person making a conscious effort to interact with other people to change focus and remove attention from the voices. Physiological techniques can include relaxation strategies, doing exercise, using an earplug in the dominant ear, and playing music (NeuRa). With problems, come solutions. There are a few possibilities for overcoming or coping with mental illness and disease. In Jackson’s case, he could have visited a health care provider that could provide emotional support and to keep tabs on his symptoms and monitor his health. The health care provider can also assist in letting Jackson avoid unnecessary treatments and exams. Much like a health care provider, a psychotherapist can help Jackson alter his behavior and ways of thinking. They can also provide several coping mechanisms for when his self-hatred and awareness begins to affect him and he exposes detrimental reactions such as stress. Although these solutions can help some individuals with SSD, it won’t always work for everyone. Therapy would have been a difficult solution for Michael and it is truly unknown whether or not he seeked help, but relatives have not witnessed Jackson attending therapy or conversing his issues with them. Jackson did have a health care provider called Dr. Conrad Murray, whom Jackson was extremely close to. However, future controversy following Jackson’s death had put a tense sensation to their relationship. Murray was sentenced for four years in prison for being  allegedly responsible for giving Jackson a fatal amount of propofol due to his difficulties and pleads for sleep. The cause of Jackson not receiving therapy may have been due to his obsession over his  appearance which was a distraction and would have prevented him from looking into his mental state through psychiatric evaluations. Jackson was also under the care of a health provider at the time, so finding another medical professional would be useless unless his current provider had advised him to seek another professional assigned to a particular issue that Jackson may have possessed.The reason why any alternative is not possible at this time is due to Michael Jackson being deceased since 2009. Not much of his medical history is known other than what he has confirmed and what records have revealed about his health practitioner.As for Nash, an alternative for coping with his schizophrenia would be voluntary therapy and medication. Voluntary therapy would aid in Nash’s recovery through him receiving advice  and strategies to cope with his schizophrenia from a professional. Medication could tame the symptoms that he exhibited publicly such as: the paranoia he experienced and his abnormal behavior. Potential reasons why Nash did not seek help was because he did not feel insane himself and did not wish to be exempted from society due to his mental problems. Nash was already taking antipsychotic drugs provided by the hospital he resided in. However, if he had taken any other medications that targeted areas Nash had no difficulty with, it would have produced more issues within Nash’s mental and physical health depending on how his body reacts. These reactions can range from allergies to a number of additional illnesses. Similar to Jackson, Nash had passed away as of May 23, 2015, therefore potential recovery is no longer an option. Not much is known of how his schizophrenia began to fade away or the state of his mind in his later years besides what he has confirmed.  Working with a mental health provider would have benefitted Michael Jackson and tamed his addiction to various kinds of painkillers. Furthermore, Jackson could have attempted psychotherapy to manage his pain and self esteem related issues. These forms of treatment are highly recommended because it could potentially assist Jackson in maintaining a grasp on his emotional trauma and free from his dependency on painkillers and eventually vanquish his mental disorders.  Similarly, therapy would have been a plausible form of treatment for Nash because a professional would provide Nash the opportunity to divulge a deeper outlook in what are the crucial issues with his mind and he could have potentially discovered a strategy that could lead him to a resolution that he particularly favored to overcome his illness. With the information Nash would have relayed on the individual he is conversing with, the public would be able to effectively understand him and could set these details as an example for further study in schizophrenia.For the mental illnesses that Jackson and Nash had to undergo by, professionals would have highly advocated therapy before suggesting medication. The reason is because medication has no solid proofs of conquering mental illness. A popular and frequent recommendation of which is psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is utilizing psychological methods and consulting with a trained therapist to overcome psychological blocks and mental disorders. As indicated by Mayo Clinic: “During psychotherapy, you learn about your condition and your moods, feelings, thoughts and behavior. With the insights and knowledge you gain, you can learn coping and stress management skills” (Staff, Mayo Clinic).Various strategies can be used in different types of psychotherapy that regard both Jackson’s and Nash’s mental illnesses. Psychodynamic psychotherapy, is a form of psychotherapy designed to reveal the unconscious beliefs, fears, behavior, etc. of a patient’s mind to decrease the severity of the mind’s tension. One strategy used in psychodynamic psychotherapy are suggestions. Suggestions are a procedure that attempts to create certain impulses, behaviors or ideas in the patient; or can assist in the disappearance of other ideas regardless of their beliefs or judgement.  Another strategy could be Counseling. Counseling revolves around the suggestions of new principles regarding solving problems, behavior, etc. Clarification is when the therapist attempts to assist the patient with becoming more aware of their emotions. As a result, the patient could hold a clear understanding of their response mechanisms and personality trait. The provider would also summarize what they believe to be necessary in recovering based on what information they had gathered. Abreaction is the process of  cleansing a patient of their emotions in the aftermath of an event through discussion. The topic of these discussions link the specific event with the effect instilled within the patient either consciously or unconsciously. Another recommendation made by professionals may be to find healthier habits such as writing, going out for a walk, exercising, conversing with a close individual whether or not they are aware of the issue, or finding an activity or hobby that helps distract the patient and induces positive reactions made by the them. These options could benefit the patient’s physical and mental health and possibly allow the individual to assist others who may be in poor conditions with their lives. These techniques can be assigned to everyone who are in need of emotional assistance, not just patients. In conclusion, it is now understood that emotional damage such as mental or verbal abuse can generate disorders that create physical pain such as Somatic symptom Disorder. Environmental and genetic forces can alter the functioning of the brain and develop anomalous behaviors which can be denoted by several disorders such as schizophrenia. This paper investigates the minds of two brilliant and talented individuals who went through difficult measures throughout their careers. The analysation and evidence used in this case study has provided a clear understanding of both Michael Jackson and John Nash and the mental disorders they were diagnosed with. Unfortunately, these disorders began to wage on throughout most of their lifetime. Events that have occurred in these individual’s lives along with its aftermath are also looked at and linked together in order to make a vivid explanation to significant outside forces that may have drawn them into their illnesses. Significant individuals such as family or health care professionals have also been used to include an outside view for further investigation on the targeted patient’s personality, behavior, and lifestyles. The disorders that Jackson and Nash had became a significant part of their existence. The effects made by certain events or a change in lifestyle that is negatively reacted to by the individuals studied in this paper can be described as repercussions or deteriorating mental conditions such as Nash’s unusual behavior and scribbles and Jackson’s reliance on drugs to numb his emotional pain. With the data gathered in this analysis, researchers can formulate more information such as the official cause of schizophrenia or a cure for Somatic Symptom Disorder to better help those who are diagnosed with these illnesses to efficiently recover and to understand the mind in a formal sense. This research can also potentially help future generations that may undergo similar illnesses such as the ones primarily focused on in this case study.ReferencesDaily, M. (2009, June 30). Daily: Jackson had complicated relationship with dad. December 03,           2017.Distraction techniques – Library, Psychosocial. (2017, August 30). Retrieved December 03, 2017, https://library.neura.edu.au/browse-library/treatments/psychosocial/distraction-techniques/.Jackson, M. (2010). Moonwalk. London: Arrow.John Nash. (n.d.). Retrieved December 03, 2017, https://www.livingwithschizophreniauk.org/john-nash/.Michael Jackson talks to Oprah Winfrey (1993, February 10). December 03, 2017, from http://www.mjshouse.com/stories/oprah.html/. Rettner, L. R. (2015, June 04). “Beautiful Mind” John Nash’s Schizophrenia “Disappeared” as He Aged”. December 03, 2017.Schizophrenia Daily News Blog. (n.d.). Retrieved December 03, 2017, from http://www.schizophrenia.com/sznews/archves/001617.html.Somatic symptom disorder. (2015, May 21). Retrieved December 03, 2017, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/somatic-symptom-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20377776.

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